THE PULLMAN STATE HISTORIC SITE

Images in the collection -- Subject Pullman Family

111th and Watt

HR Koopman postcard showing east side of Watt Avenue (now St. Lawrence) looking south with men sitting on curb.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Pullman_Views; Format: Postcard

1125 Sixteenth Street, N. W., The Embassy of the U.S.S.R.

Several pages from Vol.1 of 16th St. Architecture, Commission of Fine Arts, 1978, describing the building of the Pullman house in Washington.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

113th and Cottage Grove Avenue

Koopman postcard showing Cottage Grove at 113th Street looking south.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Pullman_Views; Format: Postcard

A Great-Grandmother Remembers

One sheet (copy) from an unidentified book, talking about growing up on the same block on Prairie Avenue as George Pullman and his family lived.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

A Pioneer's Centennial George Mortimer Pullman 1831-1931

Photocopy and type transcript of an essay on the life of George Pullman.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Acknowledgement of Sympathy Expression

Small card from Mrs Pullman and family sent in response to expressions of sympathy related to George Pullman death.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Victorian_Era_-_general; Format: Correspondence

American Enterprise

Poster and newspaper article about the musical play American Enterprise presented by the Organic Theater Company February 14, 1991. The play traces George Pullman life in dialogue and song. Play written by Jeffrey Sweet, score by Michael Vitali.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Labor_History; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Mixed media

An American Enterprise

Newsletter from the Organic Theater production of An American Enterprise, about the story of George Pullman. Contains five pages of historical background, play information, etc.

Subject: Chicago_History; Pullman_(General); Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Builders of Chicago

Clipping from unknown publication and date about George Pullman.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Burial Treasurers

Newspaper article about Graceland Cemetary in Chicago where George Pullman is buried.

Subject: ; Chicago_History; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Carolands Chateau

Color photographs of Carolands Chateau, built between 1914 and 1916 by Harriet Pullman Carolan, daughter of George M. Pullman, 19th c. industrialist.

Subject: ; Architecture; Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

FJ Carolan & Harriet Pullman Carolan

Story of Harriett Pullman and her 1st husband. Typed manuscript, unsigned.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Florence L. Miller Obituary

Two obits for Florence L. Miller, granddaughter of George Pullman. Mrs. Miller died April 27. Unknown publication.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Florence Lowden Miller Handwritten Note

Handwritten note from Florence Lowden Miller, granddaughter of George Pullman at the time of her sister, Harriet Madlener in 1987.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Handwritten (invitations, notes, etc.)

Florence Lowden Miller Note

Handwritten thank-you note to Mario Avignone from Florence Lowden Miller, granddaughter of George Pullman. Undated.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Florence Pullman Lowden

Three newspaper articles relating to the death of Florence Pullman Lowden, George Pullman's daughter. One clipping is identified from Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1937.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Florence Pullman Photograph

Studio portrait of Florence Pullman, daughter of George, in winter fur coat and muff.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George and Sanger Pullman

Information of George Pullman's twin sons George and Sanger, researched by Laurie Toth.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

George M. Pullman

Three-page periodical article entitled "George M. Pullman" by Richard H. Titherington, published in Munsey's magagazine, June 1894.

Subject: ; Pullman_Company; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Town; Pullman_Train_Cars; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

George M. Pullman

Article by Richard H. Titherington in Munsey's Magazine.

Subject: Pullman_Town; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

George M. Pullman c. 1890

Print by Paul Petraitis from original glass plate negative showing the only unretouched portrait of George M. Pullman - an accompanying full-length portrait negative is in the Tim Samuelson collection.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George M. Pullman c1895

Last known photograph of George M. Pullman. Appears to be several years older than "unretouched" 1890 portrait with fuller, whiter beard.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George M. Pullman: A Celebration of his Life and Times

A brochure with special events throughout 1997 to celebrate the life of George Pullman.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_(General); Organizations_--_Historic_Pullman_Foundation; Format: Printed Materials - Other

George Pullman

Matted photograph of George Pullman, undated.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George Pullman

Early seated portrait, possibly 1870's

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George Pullman

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Artwork

George Pullman

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George Pullman out West

Framed tintype of George M. Pullman, probably while making money in the retail business out west. George age about 30? Chicago Historical Society owns the original.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

George Pullman, Young Sleeping Car Builder

From the series Childhood of Famous Americans", fictionalized telling of George Pullman as a young man, 200 pages with illustrations, and special study sections and quizzes.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

George Pullman: Young Sleeping Car Builder

This book for youth tells the story of young George Pullman, how he grew up and came to build his famous sleeping cars.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Hands-On History

Article in Vermont Magazine about Hildene, the home of Robert Todd Lincoln, in Manchester, Vermont.

Subject: Pullman_Company; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Standard_Car_Mfg_Company; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Harriet Pullman

Taken from Beebe Books, Berkeley CA. 1 page from book referring to Mrs. Francis J. Carolan (Harriet Pullman)

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Interesting Things About Pullman Past and Present

Series of articles written for the Pullman Flyer from 2005-2007, including anecdotal history of events and people in Pullman.

Subject: Architecture; Chicago_History; Factory_Site; Genealogy; General/Misc.; Historic_Reference; Illinois_History; Organizations_--_Pullman_Civic_Organization; Preservation/_Architecture_(General); Pullman_(General); Pullman_-_Post_1975; Pullman_Abroad; Pullman_Bank; Pullman_Company; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Pullman_People; Pullman_Standard_Car_Mfg_Company; Pullman_Town; Reference; Regional; Victorian_Era_-_general; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Interesting Things About Pullman Past and Present

Series of articles written for publication in the Pullman Flyer, dates unknown. Topics include Sherwin Williams, biography of Geo. Pullman, Florence Pullman Lowden, John Hopkins, John Macis, Mario Avignone, Frank Lowden, Catholic Action Committee, Lincoln funeral car, John Franczyk, winter of 1892, Pioneer fir of 1962, Matt Valente, etc.

Subject: The_Snow_Cruiser; Pullman_Family; Pullman_(General); Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Interesting Things... 2000-2003

Series of essays and anecdotes relating to the social history of Pullman, for publication in the Pullman Flyer. Typed original and draft copies, some with photos and banner layout.

Subject: World_War_II; World_War_I; War_Memorial; Victorian_Era_-_general; The_Snow_Cruiser; Regional; Reference; Pullman_Water_Tower; Pullman_Train_Cars; Pullman_Town; Pullman_People; Pullman_Landscape_Design; Pullman_Labor_History; Pullman_Houses; Pullman_Family; Pullman_1998_Factory_Fire; Pullman_-_Post_1975; Pullman_(General); Organizations_--_Pullman_Improvement_Association; Organizations_--_Pullman_Civic_Organization; Organizations_--_Other; Organizations_--_Historic_Pullman_Foundation; Memorials; Lake_Calumet; Labor_History,_other; Illinois_History; Hotel_Florence_History; Historic_Reference; General/Misc.; Factory_Site; Chicago_History; Beman,_Solon_Spencer; Barrett,_Nathan_Franklin; Architecture; Arcade_Building; Administration_Building; Format: Printed Materials - Other

Kings of Fortune

Illustrated stoties of self-made men during the 19th century. Includes chapter on George Pullman. Fabric cover with gold embossing.

Subject: Chicago_History; Pullman_Family; Historic_Reference; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Know Your Neighbor!

From The South End Reporter, May 26, 1938 about Urban G. Willis, tutor to the Pullman grandchildren and later Dean and teacher at Pullman Free School of Manual Training.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Schools; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Larson, Carl

Photo of Carl Larson who was the coachman for the Pullman family in the early 20th century. The Larsons came to Chicago from Sweden between 1902 and 1909.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Lay Corner Stone of Pullman Free Manual Training School - Pullman Hope Nears Reality

Newspaper clipping, publication and date unknown. The school opened in 1915. Mrs. Frank O. Lowden (Florence) identified in photograph. Handwritten identification noted of others in the image.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Schools; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Letter expressing sorrow over death of George Pullman

Telegram from L. M. Johnson to C. S. Sweet, expressing great sorrow over death of George Pullman and regrets he cannot get to Chicago in time for funeral.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Eva Pope to Pullman Co. executives

Letter from Eva Pope citing her qualifications as a manager of estates; seeking a position helping to manage the Pullman estate after George Pullman died.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Correspondence

Letter from James M. Wilson

Letter from Mr. Wilson to George Pullman, asking for his influence regarding the vacancies in the U.S. Attorney General office.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Jane Byrd Bryan re Ambassadorship

Correspondence including letter from Bryan to George Pullman asking if he can channel a query to the President through the Secretary of War Gen. Alger regarding an ambassadorship. Also, clippings from Mrs. Bryan's letter and a separate note from Hattie Pullman transmitting a check to Mr. Sweet.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller

Personal, typed letter to Frank Beberdick from Florence Lowden Miller (Mrs. C. Phillip Miller), granddaughter of George Pullman. Dated November 4, 1986.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller

Typed personal letter from Florence Lowden Miller (Mrs. C. Phillip Miller, granddaughter of George Pullman. Dated November 4, 1986.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller

Personal, typed letter to Frank Beberdick from Florence Lowden Miller (Mrs. C. Phillip Miller), granddaughter of George Pullman. Dated November 21, 1986.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Mrs. E. J. Mostyn to George Pullman

Letter requesting a meeting, asking Pullman to designate a time and place.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Other

Letter from Philip D. Armour to George Pullman

Letter requesting time to talk about "Biscuit matters".

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Sherman Clay & Co.

A letter to George Pullman confirming the delivery of a Steinway Grand Piano to Mrs. F. J. Carolan in California. Letter says bill enclosed but not included with correspondence.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman,_George; Format: Correspondence

Letter from Thomas W. Bullitts to George Pullman

Letter from Thomas W. Bullitts of Law Offices of Bullitt & Sheilds, regarding some property.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from William C. Browning

Letter regarding some changes he and Pullman were promoting to some leisure property.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter from William Wirt Smith re business for sons

Letter to George Pullman suggesting business opportunities for Pullman's sons.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter re books for sale from Robert Elliott

Letter to George Pullman regarding books that Robert Elliott is selling from his private collection.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Correspondence

Letter re: George Jr., Progress in school

Letter from Edward Bryant to George Pullman regarding George, Jr.'s progress in school.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter regarding check for Diamond Medal

Thank you to George M. Pullman from Chicago Musical College for donation for the Diamond Medal.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letter to Charles M. Knoll

Letter from Liston L. Leyendecker regarding an inquiry about the Pullman family.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Other

Letter to Mr. Sweet re: pictures

Series of 3 letters to Charles S. Sweet, from Charles E. Smith regarding photographs of the Castle Rest group and views ordered by Uncle George (Pullman).

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Correspondence

Letters regarding news clippings of death of George Pullman

Correspondence from a clipping company regarding the collection of news clippings about the death of George Pullman

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Correspondence

Links to the Past

Article from the Chicago Tribune about the new development in the Prairie Avenue neighborhoood.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Chicago_History; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Lowden of Illinois vo. 1

The Life of Frank O. Lowden. Once Governor of Illinois and husband of Florence Pullman, daughter of George Pullman.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Illinois_History; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Lowden of Sinnissippi

Internet article about Frank Lowden, who married George Pullman's daughter Florence.

Subject: Illinois_History; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Mrs, George M. Pullman Gives Dance for Her Four Grandchildren

Article from the Chicago Examiner describing dance given 30 December 1913 at the Pullman Mansion. Describes guests, food, entertainment and fashions. Accompanying photo of Mrs. Pullman and grandchildren by the International News Service.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Mansion; Victorian_Era_-_general; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Mrs. George M. Pullman Gives Dance for Her Four Grandchildren

Newspaper clipping, Chicago Examiner, December 31, 1913. Includes a list of some of the guests at the end of the article.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Mrs. Lowden's Estate Valued About $500,000

Article published in Chicago Tribune estimating Florence Pullman Lowden's worth at the time of her death.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Mrs. Pullman and daughter

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Mrs. Pullman with twin boys

Childern were: Florence August 11, 1868 Harriet September 17 1869 George, Jr. and Walter June 25, 1875

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

News and Notes: A Travel Diary

from the publication of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Excerpts from the diary of Florence Lowden Miller, granddaughter of George Pullman, as she traveled to the Near East in 1929 with her family.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Nightmarish trip led Pullman to become luxury train builder

Two articles from South End Reporter, March 3, 1971. Second article entitled "Pullman eligible for U.S. funds".

Subject: ; Pullman_(General); Pullman_Family; Pullman_Rail_Travel; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Palmer Park

HR Koopman postcard showing spectators in Palmer Park watching unknown activity or sporting event, 1907. Pullman factory buildings visible in the background. People with bicycles and walking through the park visible.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Palmer_Park; Pullman_Views; Roseland_Community; Format: Postcard

Palmer Park

HR Koopman photograph of kids in wading pool in Palmer Park. Pullman factory buildings in background.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Palmer_Park; Pullman_Views; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Personal note from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller

Hand-written personal note from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller, granddaughter of Geo. Pullman, regarding death of her sister, Harriet Madlener. Includes photocopy of obituary.

Subject: ; Chicago_History; Pullman_Family; Format: Handwritten (invitations, notes, etc.)

Phillip Lowden Miller Obit

Printed from the internet. He was president of the George M. Pullman Educational Foundation.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Portrait of Eugene V. Debs

Oil painting done from a photograph, by William Kirschner, longtime Pullman resident. Antique wooden frame

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Labor_History; Historic_Reference; Format: Artwork

Portrait of Florence Pullman

Oil painting done from a photograph by William Kirschner, longtime Pullman resident. Antique wooden frame.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Historic_Reference; Format: Artwork

Prairie Avenue Mansions

Copy from an unknown publication showing Prairie Avenue residences, including George Pullman's home.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Chicago_History; Architecture; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Pullman

Section of article from Chicago Magazine about the great families of Chicago, February 2005

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Pullman Ave. & 113th St. Chicago

HR Koopman postcard showing east side of 113th & Pullman Avenue, now Cottage Grove. Dated 1903

Subject: Pullman_Views; Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Format: Postcard

Pullman Car Works, Chicago 1907

View looking east from across Illinois Central Railroad grade level tracks. Workers going home to Roseland. (There were eight tracks, grade raised in 1915.). Pedestrian overpass is shown on the left. Photo dated 1907.

Subject: Pullman_Workers; Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Pullman_Company; Format: Postcard

Pullman Centennial Paper

Copy of a paper written by unidentified source, on the one hundredth anniversary (3-3-31)of the birth of George M. Pullman, reflecting on his life.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Pullman Daughter

One of George's daughters.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Pullman Factory Postcard

Postcard showing the Pullman Car Works and Lake Vista in 1892.

Subject: Administration_Building; Factory_Site; Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Pullman_Landscape_Design; Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Format: Postcard

Pullman Family at Summer location

Extended family, possibly at Fairlawn, one of their summer homes. George has his four children arround him, and possibley his mother or someone else, as she does not look like Hattie. Ca mid 1890's

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Pullman Family Gallery

Article and copies of images shown during a photographic exhibit of the Pullman family at the Hotel Florence.

Subject: Hotel_Florence_History; Pullman_Family; Format: Other Ephemera

Pullman Free School to pay founder honor

Article from the Sunday Chicago Tribune describing celebration to honor 115th anniversary of Geo. Pullman's birth. Attended by Florence Lowden Miller and Mrs. Albert F. Madlener, Jr., both granddaughters of Pullman.

Subject: Chicago_History; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Schools; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Pullman from Michigan Avenue & 111th Street

HR Koopman postcard showing 111th Street east of Michigan with views of Pullman factory in the background.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Pullman_Views; Roseland_Community; Format: Postcard

Pullman Gate Noon Hour

HR Koopman postcard showing men leaving work from South gate at lunch time.

Subject: Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Factory_Site; Pullman_Workers; Format: Postcard

Pullman home's buried history is trucked away

Article from Chicago-Sun-Times, May 10, 2002. Foundation of old Prairie Ave. mansion removed for condos.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Pullman Land Leases

Three land leases for property owned by 4 families including George Pullman and his wife, to the railroad. This is pre-purchase of Pullman land. No signatures.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman,_George; Format: Printed Materials - Other

Pullman Mansion Interior

Subject: Pullman_Family; Pullman_Mansion; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Pullman Mansion On Prairie Avenue

Subject: Pullman_Mansion; Pullman_Family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Pullman Scrapbook

20-page, unbound personal scrapbook of photos of Pullman, past and current, including meetings, neighborhood events, visiting dignitaries, and historic images. Full record available for viewing in the Ludlam Reading Room at the Hotel Florence. Images range in date from the 1950s to the 1970s.

Subject: ; Pullman_(General); Pullman_Family; Pullman_Houses; Pullman_People; Pullman_Schools; Pullman_Town; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Pullman's Life is Recalled at Centennial Fete

Townspeople Turn Out to Pay Tribute, Chicago Tribune, March 8, 1931.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Success: or the Triumphs and Achievements of Self-Made Men

pages copied from above publication, dated 1891 by Prof. J. S. Chamberlain, Chicago. Refers to George Pullman and the Pullman Building in Chicago.

Subject: Pullman_Building; Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Publications

Sympathy appreciation card

Printed note of appreciation for sympathy (unknown death), from Mrs. C. Phillip Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Phillip Lowden Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Warren Pullman Miller. Hand-addressed envelope.

Subject: ; Pullman_Family; Format: Handwritten (invitations, notes, etc.)

The Evangelist Billy Sunday Shaking Hands With Mrs. Pullman

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Postcard

The Railway Register

Newspaper article dated March 1886, describes George Pullman sharing his new idea for a sleeping car in Fall 1860.

Subject: Pullman_Palace_Car_Company; Pullman_Family; Pullman_Train_Cars; Pullman_Rail_Travel; Format: Printed Materials -- Periodicals

Water Tower Stereo Card

Black and white stereo card showing the Water Tower and smokestack. Photograph by HR Koopman, corner 111th and Michigan Avenue.

Subject: Factory_Site; Pullman_Water_Tower; Koopman,_Henry_Ralph_and_family; Format: Photograph (all forms)

Will of George M. Pullman

Photocopy of two pages of George Pullman's will showing bequests to family, friends, organizations, etc.

Subject: Pullman_Family; Format: Printed Materials - Other

THE PULLMAN STATE HISTORIC SITE

11111 S. Forrestville Avenue
Chicago, IL 60628
773.660.2341
sleepingcars at sbcglobal.net

THE ILLINOIS DIGITAL ARCHIVES

The Pullman State Historic Site is a proud member of the Illinois Digital Archives.

SUPPORT US

The Friends of the Pullman State Historic Site

Web Site | About | Support | friendsofpshs at gmail.com

Browse Image Collections

...by title

1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P
Pullman [A-H] [I-O] [P-Z]
Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Expand Your Search

Chicago Collections is a consortium of libraries, museums, and other institutions with archives that collaborate to preserve and share the history and culture of the Chicago region. Seach in their holdings for pullman.

Search Chicago Collections.

The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a digital library that contains data and thumbnails for millions of photographs, manuscripts, books, sounds, moving images, and more from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Images are contributed by a large number of U.S. institutions. Search this vast collection of images and data using these links: